University of Pretoria
Akhona Tyhali MSc (2.44 MB)

Analysis of N-nitrosamine disinfection byproducts in drinking water

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posted on 2024-01-23, 13:41 authored by Akhona TyhaliAkhona Tyhali

N-nitrosamines (NAs) are widely recognized as cancer-causing and genotoxic substances that emerge in water primarily as a result of chlorination or chloramination disinfection processes when nitrogen-containing compounds are present. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is an NA that has garnered considerable attention due to its highly carcinogenic properties. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is the preferred method for isolating NAs from water samples, with analysis primarily relying on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC−MS) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC−MS). Despite this, comprehensive research into the distribution and potential consequences of NAs in water remains largely unexplored on the African continent. There is a pressing need for extensive research geared towards the development of sensitive yet user-friendly analytical techniques for detecting NAs and monitoring their presence in African water sources, especially in drinking water, to better assess potential health risks for the human population.


National Research Foundation (NRF) (AT Freestanding, Innovation, and Scarce Skills)

Rand Water through the professorial chair of Patricia Forbes




Sustainable Development Goals

  • 6 Clean Water and Sanitation