Exploration and variation of vertebrae
Data resembling possible universal and non-specific standards for assessing vertebrae. The dimensions of the vertebrae in the various types were compared to see if specific vertebrae had to be identified before further analysis
Additionally, size variation among sequential vertebrae within and among the different subtypes (i.e., cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae) were also considered to determine possible single vertebral or combined vertebral standards for population affinity and sex estimation. Using the information from the variation exploration component, classification models were created to gauge the predictive accuracy of vertebral measurements when estimating population affinity and sex. The classification component focused on the quantifiable differences in the vertebrae in order to develop standards that can be used to estimate population affinity and sex in South Africa. All in all this component assessed whether universal, non-specific standards can be established or if a specific vertebra needs to be identified first before classification can occur.